Muhammad Ali Granted Rule over Egypt (1840)
Ottoman Sultan issued a royal decree, a firman, in 1840 to the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha who was Albanian-born army officer after he effectively rebelled against the Sultan. Later, the Ottoman ruler accepted to approve him as the viceroy, inherited khedive of Egypt. Therefore, Egypt independence was productively recognized but it had to withdraw from other areas such as Syria (Mabry 1). Therefore, the boundary created gave the Ottoman control over the larger portion of the Sinai Peninsula. In addition, such boundary turned up to the main documented border between Syria/Palestine and Egypt.
Albanian general Muhammad Ali served in the Ottoman army. Subsequently, he became a Pasha (governor) and later declared himself, as the Egyptian ruler (Khedive) after the territory became the self-governing part of the Ottoman Empire. His authority extended to Sudan and North Africa with the Ottoman accepting him as the Khedive. Muhammad Ali is considered as the initiator of modern Egypt due to the significant transformations in the cultural, economic, and military sphere he started (Mabry 1). For instance, he reorganized the economic and political structure. More importantly, the successful revolt of Ali highlighted the rising powers of fragmentation due to the weakening powers of Ottoman rule in the nineteenth century. The position was meant to hereditary for Ali’s lineage.
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