Developmental theories are essential to understanding cognitive development from childhood to adulthood. Some of the most identified developmental approaches in education include Piaget’s, Lev Vygotsky’s, Kohlberg’s, and Erickson’s theories. The four theories have impacted significantly on education and learning process.
Piaget’s theory explains how the children develop cognitive skills throughout the childhood age. Based on his argument, knowledge is constructed based on the ideas and experiences that a child encounters. The theory, therefore, views children as motivated learners (Podgurski, 2016). Lev Vygotsky explains that children have a progressive learning ability through self-inner talk which is important for learning. It further views learning as an act of social process. As a result, he linked it to the development of voluntary attention and logical memory which further relates to the formation of concepts. The theory has been adopted in a learner-centered approach that makes learning an interactive activity and the teacher becomes the facilitator. Podgurski, (2016), explains Kohlberg’s theory based on the ability of a person to think morally. It highlights three levels of moral development which include pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional stages. Erickson’s theory also plays a primary role in education. It demonstrates that as children mature, t…
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