Data Measurements of Epidemiology
Every research process entails analysis of data using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics include describing data in reference to means, mode, and median, which can be presented in tabular and graphical form. The first step of data analysis is to understand the frequencies, and this paper aims to give insight into the different ways in which these frequencies can be presented in numerical and graphical forms by focusing on bar charts, pie charts, line graphs, ratios, proportions, percentages, incidence, and prevalence.
Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Line Graphs
There is no mode of data presentation that is better than the other because the use of either presentation mode is dependent on the type of data. Charts and graphs are used to present data in a graphics format. Pie charts and bar charts (single bars) are useful when comparing different pieces of data when a timeline is not present. As a result, it becomes easy to compare data sets. Line graphs are essential when determining trends and changes (Morrison & Hamshaw, 2012).
Ratios, Proportions, Percentages
Data is also presented in ratios, percentages, and proportions. Ratios are used to compare the frequency of one variable against another, for example, the ratio of boys to girls is 1:2 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013). Both proportions and percentages describe the frequency of a variable in relation to the whol…
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