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Category: Expository Essay

Subcategory: Anatomy

Level: College

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Anatomy & Physiology of Joints
Anatomy & Physiology of Joints
1. Synovial Joint
Synovial joint or diarthrosis is the most common and movable joint in the body of a mammal. Such joints help to achieve rotational movements at the point of contact of articulating bones. The various structures that make up the synovial joints are:
Synovial cavity: represents the space between the two articulating bones and is filled with a fluid called the synovial fluid. The fluid acts as a lubricant and reduces the friction between two articulating bones.
Joint Capsule: It is a fibrous covering which is continuous with the periosteum of the articulating bones and surrounds the synovial joint uniting the two articulating bones. Te capsule comprises of outer layer and the inner synovial membrane. The outer layer contains ligaments while the inner synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluid. The joint capsule is innervated by nerves, but lacks blood supply. The ligaments provide stability of the knee or other parts during rotational movements.
Articular cartilage: The bones of the synovial joint are covered by hyaline cartilage which also absorbs shock on the bones during jumping or rotational movements.
Articular Discs: These are fibro-cartilage cushions situated between opposite surfaces in a joint. Sometimes these pads are made of adipose tissue, which buffers the articular cartilage.
Tendons: Tissues that joins muscle to bones and are made of …

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