1. When students sit for an exam, some score high marks while some attain fewer marks, this is because the teacher compared the answers to the standard marking scheme. Frames of reference set the appropriate requirements that need to be meet or be used as a reference point. In critical thinking, frames of reference serve as a guide and set the expectations beforehand. It is vital to consider frames of reference in cases where whatever is being done has been done before.
2. Most historical speakers such as Martin Luther King gained fame due to their power to communicate relevant ideas. The audience saw him as credible and reliable. The rhetoric appeal to ethos focuses on how well the speaker gains the trust and faith of the audience. It takes time before a speaker or any brand establishes an ethos with the general public. A few methods to develop an ethos is to use professional language when addressing the people, logically connect your ideas, and be sensitive and responsive to your audience reaction to whatever you say.
3. ‘Vaccines are dangerous.’ Such statements have been used to mislead the citizens. The logical fallacy of non sequitur represents phrases or statements detached from the reality, they have no scientific basis, and they are false. During an argument or a political campaign, the opponents will more often than not use such statements to sway the crowd.
4. Everybody has a particular viewpoint concerning a given topic. It is therefore difficult to convin…
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