PCR and Genetics Assignment
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The PCR scientific development is nothing short of revolutionary. Developed in 1984 by an American biochemist by the name Kary Mullis, PCR has become a renowned scientific method used in different biological labs. This technique is majorly used to amplify specific DNA fragments from small and minute quantities to unlimited copies. From the name itself, the PCR is a chain reaction. In essence, a single strand of a fragment of the DNA molecule is used to give rise to two copies, then four, then eight and so forth. This reaction is facilitated by polymerase enzymes that bring together individual DNA blocks to form long molecular strands. To work effectively, the polymerases require ample amounts of DNA building blocks in the name of nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of four bases namely; adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The polymerases also require a small DNA fragment referred to as the primer. These three ingredients are essential in when constructing similar template copies. In short, the PCR method is often used to produce several copies of a specific nucleic acids strand.
The PCR method follows three significant steps. These steps include; denaturation, annealing, and extension. The PCR reaction begins with denaturation. This step involves heating samples of DNA strands to about 95 degrees Celsius for about 30 seconds or more. This leads to the denaturation or separation of the double-strand…
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