Avian Influenza as a New Health Challenge
Communicable now diseases spread faster across boundaries than any other time in history. This is largely attributed to increased human mobility facilitated by quick transport means. Diseases that had been controlled are now a threat to humanity, which has necessitated a review of vaccination practices to counter new diseases trends. In America, for instance, the 2014-2015 avian Influenza is the worst case of the three outbreak incidences ever recorded. The other major cases, although of a less magnitude, were reported in 1983 and 2004 (Kumar, 2012). One of the fast and widely spread avian influenza incidences was first reported in Mexico back in April 2009. The same was reported in the U.S. in the same month. The outbreak assumed pandemic proportions within 50 days (Uyeki, 2011). The flue was reported in Canada, India, and Australia among other 73 countries within the same period, an indication that it spread at a very fast rate. Reports show that there were 163 death cases and 35,928 infections in three months (Kumar, 2012).
Avian influenza, in most cases, affects birds much as it occurs in mammals also. The disease is caused by a virus called influenza A that evolves continually in its host (Vaughan & Tinker, 2009). Consequences of the evolving nature of the virus include the production of viral strains in hosts. There is no certainty on immediate cause or source of infections to birds. Most outbreaks, …
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