A hunting and gathering society is characterized by small families, high interdependence, and low inequality with the family being the primary institution. Labor division is defined on the basis of gender. Men are hunters and women the gatherers. Horticultural and pastoral societies are relatively larger with more inequality compared to hunting and gathering societies. They use simple tools to grow crops and also raise livestock. Agricultural societies are characterized by the growth of more crops using developed tools such as plow and oxen. They are wealthier than horticultural and pastoral societies but have higher levels of conflicts. Industrial societies have high levels of individualism and involve the use of factories and machines. They have low conflicts. Postindustrial societies are characterized by higher education. They involve information technology jobs. Biotech societies are characterized by a low cost of products due to use of technology. Processes have highly technical properties. (Barkan, 2011).
Primary groups are characterized by small sizes, physical closeness of members, and highly stable and inclusive relationships. Members have similar backgrounds and look to the world from a similar point of view. Secondary groups are goal-oriented and have relatively large sizes, optional membership, are governed by formal rules, and may have both active and inactive members. In-groups are characterized by the sense of ethnocentrism, feeling of unity, fellow-feeling, an…
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