Black Racial Identity Development Model
Black Racial Identity Development Model describes the process in which black people develop a sense of themselves by appreciating their blackness in the hostile sociopolitical environment. The model is vital because it helps the black people cope with negative aspects such as oppression and discrimination. Also, the theory is related to elements such as acculturation, psychological health, self-actualization, academic achievement, and psychosocial competence (Jackson 33). Moreover, the model is critical because it assists the black individuals to shift from the negative to positive self-identity in their respective racial group membership. It involves several stages including pre-encounter, encounter, emersion, internalization and commitment. The model is also essential to the counselors because it assists them in knowing how individuals identify with their biological cultures. Without the model, it would be difficult for counselors to distinguish the whites and blacks just by their physical appearance.
However, the model does not explain how particular aspects of an individual’s identity can interact with the racial identity. These aspects include sexual orientation, gender, and socioeconomic status (Constantine et al. 98). These aspects are vital because they can significantly shape a person’s black identity. Additionally, the theory is criticized because it lacks adequate discussion…
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