Q1. Peroxisomes are spherical organelles that are found in all animal cells (except the red blood corpuscles) and various plant cells. These organelles have a diameter ranging from 0.2 to 1 micrometer and contain a different types of oxidases. Oxidases are enzymes that utilize molecular oxygen to metabolize organic compounds. The end product of oxidase action is hydrogen peroxide, which is a reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes also contain an enzyme called catalase, which degrades hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Fatty acid oxidation also takes place in the peroxisomes. However, the energy released during such oxidation is converted to heat, and the acetyl groups are transferred to the cytoplasm for the synthesis of cholesterol (Corpas & Barroso, 2014).
Q2. Ribosomes are cellular organelles that consist of ribosomal proteins and four ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules, organized into large and small subunits. These subunits associate with messenger RNA (mRNA) and certain proteins like initiation factors (IF) and elongation factors (EF), for the purpose of synthesizing proteins. Ribosomes are found either as free entities within the cytoplasm or may be associated with the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. The mRNA-rRNA interaction attracts transfer RNA (tRNA), which contains an amino acid. The repetitive binding of various tRNA carrying different amino acids leads to the production of a peptide chain or protein. The destined protein may be carried to the plasma membrane or …
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